A IS FOR AGRICULTURE & ARCHAEOLOGY
In Brazil, the study of historical ARCHAEOLOGY is a relatively new field. The country has many archaeology sites including Serra da Capivara National Park that has the largest concentration of prehistoric sites in the Americas. Research programs are being introduced such as the Fernando de Noroahaan archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, the states of Bahia and Santa Catarina. Five types of archaeological mound have been noted in the Amazon regionestuary region of the Amazon. Researchers say they have unearthed stone tools proving that humans reached what is now northeast Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago.
Brazil has a great variety of BIRDS including a total of 1,901 species, of which 270 are endemic. Some are Near-threatened, Vulnerable, and/or Rare/Accidental. The Rufour Bellied Thrush has been the state bird of São Paulo since 1966, and the national bird of Brazil since 2002. The Pantanal is famous for congregations of massive numbers of birds. Bird watching is popular and there are many Birding Hotspots. Brazil's most famous and iconic bird the Toco Toucan, with its rainbow colored beak and bright blue eyes, is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful birds in the world.
Brazil has many BRIDGES including 2 suspension bridges, 5 cable-stayed bridges, and 2 railway bridges. The country also has footbridges. The Uruguiaiana International Bridge joins Argentina and Brazil over the Uruguay River. The longest bridge in the southern hemishpere is the Rio-Niterói Bridge which connects the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói in Brazil. The country also has footbridges. The Octavio Frias de Oliveria Bridgeis a cable-stayed bridge in Sao Paul over the Pinheiros River. The bridge deck is unusual due to its form, which is similar to an "X", crossing at the tower. It is the only bridge in the world that has two curved tracks supported by a single concrete mast.
Brazil is a technically-advanced country and has all forms of COMMUNICATION. Mobile phones are becoming much more popular than fixed-line telephones. A number of companies offer combined VoIP, broadband and pay TV services. the national postal service is fairly reliable and there are many post offices throughout the country. Brazil has hundreds of TV channels and thousands of radio station The country also has many and newspapers. Webcams are located throughout Brazil.
The Federal Government of Brazil regulates the educational system in Brazil through the Ministry of Education. The government provides each area with funding and educational guidelines, and the individual states are responsible for implementing and enforcing these. School is compulsory for all children between 7 and 14 years of age. Brazil has both public and private schools. The private schools are costly while the public schools are free of charge. Home schooling is popular.
A variety of EVENTS and festivals are held in Brazil. The Rio Carnival is a festival held before Lent every year and considered the biggest carnival in the world. The Festa do Peão de Barretos is a rodeo featuring bulls and horses. The country celebrates public holidays and other special days. Festa Juninaare the annual Brazilian celebrations historically related to European Midsummer that take place in the beginning of the Brazilian winter.
The FLAG of Brazil is a blue disc depicting a starry sky spanned by a curved band inscribed with the national motto "Ordem e Progresso" ("Order and Progress"), within a gold rhombus, on a green field. Brazil officially adopted this flag in 1889 replacing the flag of the Empire of Brazil. The country has a variety of other flags. The Brazilian Flag Anthem is a song dedicated to the Brazilian flag. The flag of Brazil contains 27 stars representing the Brazilian states and the Federal District.
FOOD in Brazil has European, African and Amerindian influences. It varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations. Feijoada is considered the National Dish and Cachaca the National Cocktail. Southeast Brazil food varies by region. North Brazil food is heavily influenced by indigenous food. Center West Brazil food uses the pequi (a very popular fruit) is used in a lot of typical foods. Northeast Brazil food is heavily influenced by African food. Due to the long tradition in livestock production and the heavy German immigration red meat is the basis of the local food in Southern Brazil. The country has Food Festivals, Events, and Shows.
Brazil has many FORTS. The Fortaleza de São João da Barra do Rio de Janeiro is a 16th-century star fort in the Urca neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro erected protect Guanabara Bay from French invasion. Fort Coligny was founded in Rio de Janeiro in 1555 for protection against attacks by hostile Indians and the Portuguese. This fortress was almost totally destroyed by bombardment in a revolt of the Navy, in 1893. Today, the island is home to the Naval School and is permanently connected to the continent. São Marcelo Fort started as a triangular bastion in the beginning of the 17th century on a reef in the entrance of the port of Salvador. After the Dutch invasion in 1624, it was rebuilt in stone masonry and acquired its circular to protect the center of the colonial city against foreigner maritime attacks.
Brazil has GHOST TOWNS and claims to have several haunted places. In 2007, the small village of Caraíbas, in the municipality of Itacarambi, suffered a rare earthquake in measuring 4.9 . Located over a geological fault, the village of 76 families was evacuated and has been abandoned ever since. Fordlândia was established by an American industrialist in 1928. This was done to mass-produce natural rubber and the was an absolute failure. In 1934, the factory was relocated to Belterra, but ultimately closed down in 1945. The country has many ghost stories. Rio de Janiero has some urban legends.
The GLOBAL POSITION of Brazil is is 10° South and 55° West . The national territory extends 2,731 mi from north to south, making Brazil the longest country in the world. Pico da Neblina is the highest point in the country. The lowest point is the Atlantic Ocean. Geocaching is a high-tech sport using a Global Positioning Finder and the country has many Geocaches. The topography of Brazil ranges from rivers to plains to forest to mountains to highlands.
The History of Brazil dales back to 9,000 BC when Native people settle in the Amazon region. In 1500 A.D. Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral landed in Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. In 1555 French forces occupied Rio de Janeiro harbor but 2 years later, Portugal regained control and established the city of Rio de Janeiro. In 1822, Brazil gained independence from Portugal and Pedro I, the son of Portugal’s king, established the Brazilian empire. In 1889, the military forced Emperor Pedro II to give up his throne and Brazil become a democratic republic with a president. In 2010 Dilma Rousseff was elected Brazil’s first woman President. In 2016, she was accused of mismanaging finances and suspended from office and Michel Temer was sworn in to serve the rest of her term to 1 January 2019.
Brazil has many Public HOLIDAYS and may be legislated at the federal, statewide and municipal levels. Most holidays are observed nationwide, but each state and city may have its own holidays as well. There are also many popular events. One of the best known event is Carnival of Brazil an annual Brazilian festival which marks the beginning of Lent. On certain days of Lent, Roman Catholics and some other Christians traditionally abstain from the consumption of meat and poultry, hence the term "carnival," from carnelevare, "to remove (literally, "raise") meat."
It is said that Brazil has more insects than any country in the world. It is estimated that Brazil has over 70,000 species of insects, with some estimates ranging up to 15 million, with more being discovered almost daily. About 520 species of Thrips are found in Brazil. The Amazon rain forest may house as many as 2.5 million species of insects. The Brazilian Wandering Spider is classed as the worlds most venomous spider. Brazil has a variety of Butterfliesand other anthropods. There are a variety of butterflies in the Amazon Rain Forest. The most famous is the Blue Morphos.
Brazil has many ISLANDSincluding Atlantic Ocean islands and delta islands. The Ilha das Cobras is an island located within Guanabara Bay and home to the Arsenal de Marinha do Rio de Janeiro base of the Brazilian Navy.
The centers of all three JUDICIAL branches of the federal government of Brazil are in Brasília, including the Congress, the President, and the Supreme Court. The city also hosts over 100 foreign embassies.
Many aspects of life in Brazil focus on KIDS. There are Craft Activities from Brazil for kids. Schools in Brazil are teaching kids to eat their vegetables. The school feeding program in Brazil is the second largest in the world and feeds 42 million of the country’s school children.
Portuguese is the official LANGUAGE of Brazil. Brazilian Sign Language is also an official language, minority languages include indigenous languages, and languages of more recent European and Asian immigrants. The population speaks or signs approximately 210 languages, of which 180 are indigenous. Less than forty thousand people actually speak any one of the indigenous languages in the Brazilian territory. Many Amerindian minority languages are spoken throughout Brazil, mostly in Northern Brazil. There has been a growth in the number of co-official languages in cities populated by immigrants or indigenous in the north, both with support from the Ministry of Tourism, as was recently established in Santa Maria de Jetibá, Pomerode and Vila Pavão, where German also has co-official status.
Brazil has many LIBRARIES including public libraries and University Libraries. The National Library is located in Rio de Janeiro. The history of the National Library began in 1755, when Lisbon suffered a violent earthquake. The Royal Library was considered one of the most important libraries in Europe at that time. This irreparable loss to the Portuguese was the impetus for moving many of its contents to Brazil.
Brazil has a number of LIGHTHOUSES located along the Atlantic coastline and islands of Brazil. Preguicas Lighthouse was built in 1940. It is still in inhabited and open to visitors on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday. Calcanhar Lighthouse is the 19th tallest "traditional lighthouse" in the world, the tallest in Brazil, and one of the tallest concrete lighthouses in the world. A lighthouse is an important aspect to the mariner.
Brazil has many MOUNTAINS and mountain ranges ranges. Pico da Neblina is the tallest mountain. Mountain climbing is a popular activity.The principal mountain ranges average elevations just under 2,000 meters. The Serra do Mar Range hugs the Atlantic coast, and the Serra do Espinhaço Range, the largest in area, extends through the south-central part of the country. The highest mountains are in the Tumucumaque, Pacaraima, and Imeri ranges, among others, which traverse the northern border with the Guianas and Venezuela.
Brazil has a variety of MUSEUMS. The National Museum of Brazil in Rio de Janiero was established by the King of Portugal Dom João VI in 1818. Initially the Museum sheltered botanical and animal specimens, especially birds, which caused the old building to be known by the population as the "House of the Birds". The Museum of Modern Art in São Paulo It is considered a landmark of the city and a main symbol of modern Brazilian architecture. The Niteroi Contemporary Art Museum is a saucer-shaped structure, situated on a cliff above Guanabara bay. The Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro contains a collection of mainly contemporary art from Brazil, comprising sculptures, photographic works from the 19th century, prints, drawings and paintings.
After 500 years of history, MUSIC in Brazil developed some unique and original styles. In 1549, the Edcucoes (indigenous villages) were organized and run by Jesuits. In 1808, the Portuguese Royal family brought the great musical library from the House of Bragança. In the beginning of the 20th century authentically Brazilian music was created with less influences of the European culture. Brazilian music now follows the guidelines of both experimentalism and traditional music. The Samba has become the best known form of Brazilian music. Opera is popular and the country has several Opera Houses. The Amazon Theater is located in the heart of the Amazon rain forest. It is the location of the annual Amazonas Opera Festival and the home of the Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra. Brazil has many music festivals.
Brazil has several OBSERVATORIES and planetariums. The National Observatory, Founded in 1827, is one of the oldest scientific institutions in the country. There has been astronomical observation in Brazil since the colonial times. The country has Astronomy Clubs & Organizations.
The Brazilian government estimates its population at 190.8 million PEOPLE. The country has a very diverse population comprising many races and ethnic groups. In general, Brazilians trace their origins from 5 sources: Europeans, Western and Central-Western Africans, Amerindians, Levantines, and East Asians. Brazil has conducted a periodical population census since 1872. Brazil is widely known to be one the most diverse countries in the world. Brazil has produced a number of well-known people.
Brazil has many PORTS The Port of Manaus is the main transport hub for the entire upper Amazon basin. Port of Natal is the South American port closest to Europe and has a strong focus on the export of fruit. Recife Port has two main operational areas - Cruises and cargo. Porto de Santos is the largest port in Brazil and one of the busiest in Latin America. Porto de Paranaguá is the largest Brazilian port exporting agricultural products.
Brazil has a large variety of REPTILES and some of them are threatened or endangered. Turtles (one of the oldest reptile groups) include the Brazilian Giant Tortoise, the Hawksbill Sea Turtle, and the Leatherback Sea Turtle, the largest of all living turtles. Caimans include Cuvier's Dwarf Caiman, the Black Caiman, and the Smooth-fronted Caiman. Lizards include Amphisbaenias (worm lizards) and the Red Worm Lizard. Geckos include Kluge's Dwarf Gecko and the Bridled Forest Gecko. Iguanas include the Green Iguana and the Amazon Forest Dragon. Snakes include the Rainbow Boa, the Coral Pipesnake, and the Common (or Green) Anaconda, the largest of all snakes. In 2014, a beautiful new snake species, named Atractus spinalis, was discovered in the Serra do Espinhaco mountain range.
Brazil has many, many RIVERS. Waterways are an important means of transport and a vital source of irrigation and hydropower. Due to its many rivers and basins and its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean Brazil is very dependent on its network of rivers. The Amazon River is the longest river in the country and the largest river by discharge of water in the world, and according to some experts, the longest in length. The most distant source is the Cordillera Rumi Cruz at the headwaters of the Mantaro River in Peru.
Brazil has all forms of TRANSPORTATION including airports and railways. The Rio de Janeiro Metro is a mass-transit underground railway network that serves the city. The Sao Paulo Metro is the main rapid transit system in the city and the largest in Brazil. In most of the cities buses and minivans are the most common way of public transport. Waterway transportation in the country is divided into river transport and sea transport. There are regions that depend almost exclusively on this type of transport, such as the Amazon region, where there are practically no roads or railways. License Plates in Brazil use color schemes to show their type, and front and rear plates use the same colors. Brazilian vehicle number plates are issued by the states.
Brazil has a wide variety of TREES and the Pau-Brasil is the National Tree. The Rubber Tree is important to the economy and can be farmed on a massive scale, but is also found growing wildly. Brazil is also the home of the hardwoods, including Mahogany and hundreds of species of palms. The country has many Forests including pine forests, palm forests and tropical semi-deciduous forests. The Amazon Basin and the areas of heavy rainfall along the Atlantic coast have tropical rain forest composed of broadleaf evergreen trees. The Cantao, a tropical forest, is about 90% is protected within Cantão State Park. It is one of the biologically richest areas of the eastern Amazon, with many species of birds and fish and large populations of endangered species such as the giant otter and the black caiman. The Babacu forests are inhabited by many animals. The native peoples of the Brazilian rain forest play instruments including whistles, flutes, horns, drums and rattles and much of the music imitates the sounds of the Amazon Rain forest.
Brazil has UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Pelourinho district of the upper town of Salvador, Bahia has many examples of Portuguese colonial architecture and historical monuments. The Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Congonhas is in good condition and represents a unique artistic achievement and outstanding example of 18th century Brazilian architecture. Sao Francisco Square is a well-preserved example of typical Franciscan architecture of north-eastern Brazil. The country has many UNESCO Biosphere Reserves and Protected Areas.
Brazil has had Volcanoes. The Pico do Cabugi is the only extinct volcano in Brazil which preserves its original form. The Nova Iguaçu Volcano is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Trindade and Martim Vaz islands are of volcanic origin and have rugged terrain.
The WEATHER in Brazil varies considerably from tropical north (the Equator traverses the mouth of the Amazon) to temperate zones south of the Tropic of Capricorn. High and relatively regular levels of precipitation in the Amazon contrast sharply with the dryness of the semiarid Northeast where rainfall is highly erratic and there are severe droughts in cycles averaging seven years. Despite high annual precipitation, the Amazon rain forest has a three- to five-month dry season, the timing of which varies according to location north or south of the equator. Click HERE for more weather and climate in Brazil. A study shows that Brazil has done more to stop climate change than any other country.
Brazil has a wide variety of WILDLIFE and many of them are endangered. The several species of Armadillo are mainly nocturnal and rarely seen. Peccaries , (also javelina or skunk pig), are fairly widely distributed in forests. The Brazilian tapir can also be found there. The Maned Wolf, also known as the Golden Dog, is found in open and semi-open habitats. The Wild Jaguar is widely but thinly distributed. Around 20 species of Marmoset and the Tamarin are found in Brazil. The Golden Lion Tamarin is confined to three small areas of the tropical rain forest in southeastern Brazil. About 80 of the world’s approximately 300 primate species are found in Brazil, many of them unique to the country.The most common primate in Amazonia is the little Squirrel Monkey. The widespread Capybara is the largest rodent in the world. Herds of up to 40 may be seen in the Pantanal. The country has several Wildlife Refuges.
Brazil has several ZOOS. The Sao Paulo Zoo is the largest zoo in Brazil. Animals are kept in enclosures that replicate their natural habitats. In 2004 the Municipal Zoological Park Qu8inzinho de Barros was refurbished. It now includes state-of-the-art exhibition techniques, such as monkey pits, aviaries in which the visitors can watch the birds flying around them, as well as large glass panes that allow them to watch bears, the South American giant otter, and other species from a short distance. Aquario de Sao Paulo is the largest oceanarium in South America with more 1 million gallons of seawater. The Aquario Municipal de Santos has 31 tanks of fresh and salt water more than 200 species.